Chennakesava Temple Somanathapura – A Handy Photo Guide

The Chennakesava Temple of Somanathapura, built during the rule of the Hoysala Dynasty of Karnataka, illustrates the prolific skills of the sculptors of that era. It is a sheer exhibition of Hindu scriptures moulded in lifelike sculptures. For an artist, it is a temple where the creators left behind an art gallery for the generations to come. Even for a layman, it would have been a school to grasp the unwritten mythology through an easy pictorial representation. Historians claim it to be an artwork that led Hoysalas to the zenith of their architectural glory. This ornately chiselled ancient temple of India is located near Mysore and is also accessible from Bangalore by road.

Being a non-functional temple, it opens only at 8:30 am and closes down before the sun sets by 5:30 pm. On any weekend it would be a sea of humans in the temple complex. However, weekdays are quiet and only a handful of tourists come for a visit here. We went on Thursday noon and we were around 10 people on the premise at any given time. We took about two and a half hours to completely understand the stories depicted in each sculpture.

Chennakesava temple Somanathapura

 

 

Somanathapura Temple History

The Somnathpur Keshava Temple was built in 13th Century by Somanatha Dandnayaka, a general in the kingdom of Hoysalas under the king Narasimha III.  The information about the sculptors, funds and the kings is found on an inscription placed under the Gopuram of the temple. Somanatha created an Agrahara (granting of lands to the Brahmins) and allotted the fund for the construction of the temple. Apart from this Keshava temple, he also built Panchlinga temple, Lakshminarsimha and Yoganarayana Temple in this region which now lay in ruins. This town developed by the general Somanatha was named after him as Somanathapur or Somnathpur.

somanathapura keshava temple

Somnathpur temple was destroyed during Muslim attacks in the Hoysala kingdoms. The first attack was by Malik Kafur, Alauddin Khilji’s general in 1311 and in 1326 Muhammad Bin Tughlaq destroyed the remaining structures.  Some parts of the temples were restored by Vijayanagara Kings and later by Wodeyars of Mysuru. This difference can clearly be seen in the color, carving, and polishing of the stone. The enclosed wall and small Basadis have also been repaired by ASI and are still not in its actual shape or purpose.

The preceding deities of the temple are Keshava, Venugopala and Janadarna. Contrary to the assumption that the Somanathapura temple at Mysore might be a Shiva temple, it is dedicated to three different forms of Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu. It completely portrays Vaishnavism apart from one or two sculptures of Harihara a combination of Shiva and Vishnu.

 

If you love architecture and history, Do read about the most ancient temple of Karnatka

Madhukeshwara Temple of Banavasi, Your Detailed Handy Guide

 

How to Reach Somanathapura Keshava Temple from Bangalore

There is no direct bus available from Bangalore to Somanathapura. The Somnathpur Temple near Mysore can be reached by a road trip via Bangalore Maddur Road and then take a diversion towards Talakadu. 7 kilometre ahead of the town of Bennur lays the main temple of Somanathapura. Alternatively, you can take a train to Mysuru and can drive down 34 kilometers to Somanathapura. From Mysore, it is easy to cover Talakadu Panchalingeshwara Temples and Somanathapura Keshava Temple in a day. The nearest airport is located in Mysore.

 

 

A Self-guided Photo Walk of Chennakesava Temple, Somanathapura

Follow this guide by starting from the Gopuram or the entrance and then climb the four steps leading to the main shrine. The stories on the wall are sequenced in a clockwise manner. This compels you to begin from your left while facing the main shrine on the star-shaped platform. It is also the temple’s circumambulation path. You can either start with this path first or with the main shrine, the choice is yours as it is a non-functional temple. We started with the circumambulation first and then entered the garbhgriha.

 

Start at the Broken Mahadwara and Basadis

The entrance or the Mahadwara of this temple, showcasing the typical Hoysala style, is built on a level the same as the main shrine. Mahadwara can be seen as a square mandapa unlike the typical Dravidian temple. This temple is built in Vesara style which a mixture of Nagara (North Indian) and Dravidian Style (South Indian). The small Basadis or temple rooms built encompassing the wall are recently restored.

Chennakesava temple Somanathapura - Gopuram

The basadis may have been used to place the idols of local deities, yakshas, Jain Tirthankaras or sages. During the attack by Tughlaqs who first destroyed the main temple in search of gold, these basadis were completely unearthed just to find the gold. In earlier times in the absence of banks, the locals kept their gold safe in the temples under the supervision of the Brahmins. The attackers might be informed of the very fact and thus plundered the shrines.

The tall inscription on the left is written on soapstone or Chalkstone that is soft while it is brought from the quarry but hardens after it is exposed to wind and heat. On the open platform where the basadis aren’t restored, ASI has placed different idols found from the other ruined temples and the Basadis of Somanathapura Temple.

 

The Dwarpalakas and the Main Shrine

The two Dwarpalakas at the entrance aren’t monoliths, nor are the other huge idols. The parts of idols are fixed together to make a complete idol. The Dwarpalaks Jaya and Vijaya unusually resemble the main deity Keshava. They also have four hands hold different symbolic weapons of Lord Vishnu. Though most of their hands and other parts are now broken, the existing structure tells of its ancient glory. On the opposite side, from the place you entered you can see two kshetrapalas.

Somanathapura Temple - Dwarpalakas

The wall right beside the dwarpalas shows the soldiers marching holding their weapons. This may be a depiction of an army heading for a war or a mere military drill. You can also see the meditating Buddha’s small sculpture.

 

Decoding the Carving on the Exterior Wall of the Temple

The outer wall of the temple is divided into horizontal bands with each of them depicting an element of religion, culture or nature. The outer wall of the Sabha Mandap contains no major carving of any deity but just the scenes from Ramayana and Kamasutra. Detailed carving can be observed on the walls of the sanctum Sanctorum.

Somanathapura Chennakesava Temple

  The Elephant Band

At the base is the strongest animal which is also an important part in the army of the kingdom. It also symbolizes the strong base of the Hoysala Kingdom. Apparently, they seem like they are marching for a war or a rehearsal of the same. Further observation would make you realise that not all of them are marching furiously for the war. The playful gestures wherein the elephants are notoriously teasing the other makes this art more animated. None of these elephants looks the same and an overall picture shows an artist’s efforts of bringing stones to life.

Chennakesava Temple of Somanathapura - Carvings of Elephants and Horses

‘Ashvapatti’ or the Horse Band

Above the elephants have been staged the horses, another important animal for a strong army. The horse riders seem to be carrying different objects suggests the casual riding by the soldiers, travellers and common men.  On the right wall, horses are replaced by camels in some blocks.

 

 Natural Elements

Chennakesava Temple Somanathapura

A beautiful design that might have been inspired by the rich flora and fauna of the region repeats itself on this band all around the temple. It includes an imaginary bird surrounded by creepers and flowers.

 

 The Stories of Ramayana, Bhagavad Purana, Vishnu Purana, and Mahabharat

The stories from the Hindu Mythology surrounds this temple like the story pages flipping from all the three books in a sequence. It starts with the Ramayana story of Dasharatha performing Yagya for the heirs and continues till the death of Ravana. Not all details are elaborated but it is enough to understand the main events which mainly occurred in south of India and Srilanka.

Chennakesava Temple of Somanathapura - Krishna Story Carvings
The picture shows Putna breast-feeding Krishna (from the right) which then continues to her killing and also the killing scene of another demon called Shakatasur can be seen.

 

Chennakesava Temple of Somanathapura - Kushti Scene
Here, the youth can be seen practising Kushti in their Karyashala

 

Chennakesava Temple of Somanathapura - Jatayu Scene
Along this line, you can see Ravana luring Sita in a disguise of a saint and then carrying her in a Pushpak Vimana. Jatayu can be seen fighting and eventually being killed by the 10 headed Ravana.

 

Chennakesava Temple Somanathapura - Krishna Balarama Carving
This scene is from Mathura where Krishna and Balarama Kills the demons treacherously sent by Ravana on their visit to Mathura

 

Chenakeshava Temple Somanathapura - Krishna as a Shepherd
Observe the details as Krishna is depicted as a Shepherd

 

Chennakesava Temple Somanathapura - Makhanchori Scene
 Krishna is stealing butter along with his friends while Yashoda is busy making butter on the right. 

 

Somanathapura Temple Mysore - Carving of a chariot
A Mahabharata scene with the Pandavas heading in a Chariot

 

Chennakesava Temple of Somanathapura - Story of Prahalad
Here you can see the attempts of Hiranyakashyapu to kill Prahalad by handing over poisonous food to the mother, a demon trying to kill baby Prahalad and a young Prahalad busy chanting Vishnu mantra while sitting on Holika.

The stories of Bhagavad Purana continues on the backside wall. Some of these figures also shows the indoor sports of Dwand Yuddh or ‘Kushti’ being practised by the students. The natural sceneries and Kushti scenes then takes over the Krishna stories. Krishna stealing the butter, cloths of the gopis and the killing of Putna has also been engraved in detail. In the end, the story of Holika, Prahalad and Hiranyakashyapu paving way to the Narsimha Avatara can be seen.

 

 Makara – The Mythological Creature

This creature called Makara is not an actual crocodile but just an animal having body parts of different animals. This creature has a mouth of a crocodile, body of a pig, feathers of a peacock, monkey’s eyes, cow’s ears, paws of a tiger, and elephant’s trunk. These are also the major animals of the forests surrounding the then empire of Hoysalas. The historians are of the viewpoint that each of these parts denotes a quality of Hoysala Empire and its kings. And here it is:

Somanathapura Temple Mysore - Makara Carving

Crocodile: A set of fierce weapons that don’t spare a culprit/enemy.

Pig: The vastness of the empire that welcomes everything within.

Peacock: The natural beauty with which this empire is blessed.

Monkey: An eye to observe things despite being at the top.

Cow’s ears: Flexible system in which nothing goes unheard.

Tiger: The grip so strong and a blow so fierce

Elephant: Suggesting the strength of the Hoysala kings.

 

Read the Guides to the Other Temples of Karnataka and Goa

Madhukeshwara Temple of Banavasi, Your Detailed Handy Guide

Shravanbelagola – Unravel the Real Story of The Mighty Bahubali

 

The Elements of Kamasutra

Unlike the other Krishna temples where Rasleela would have been the main art, the walls of Chennakesava Temple of Somanathapura depict Kamasutra. Only the left wall of the sabha mandap has a few carving which disappears as the series of sculptures of Gods and goddesses start from the outer wall of the first sanctum sanctorum.

Chennakesava Somanathapura Temple Mysore - Kamasutra Carving
Out of the four main elements of Arth, Dharm, Kama and Moksha, Kama was not excluded from being a part of this temple and forms an important part of this Keshava temple

 

 

Mayura Band

Somanathapura Temple Mysore - Carving of Mayura

The topmost band consists of the figures of peacocks or Mayura. It was supposedly a favourite bird of Krishna. He also ornamented his crown with a peacock feather.

 

 A Gallery of the Dancing Gods

This band would blow your mind as it looks as unusual as it sounds. Almost all the major deities including the incarnations of Vishnu have been beautifully carved by different sculptors. It is strange to even find a block below each carving bearing the sign of its creator. This shows the contribution of different (approximately 500) sculptors who contributed in the form of these ornate carvings. The main among the contributors were the sculptors named Malitamma, Masalitamma, Bameya, Chowdeya, and Chameya.

Total Big idols here are 194 out of which 164 are Lord Vishnu.

chennakeshava temple somnathpur
An unusual carving of Lord Vishnu sitting on Shesh Naga (The usual one depicts the sleeping Vishnu) and a Dancing Ganesha. The musicians and dancers can be seen flanked around them

 

Dancing Goddesses of Somnathpur Temple Mysore
From your left, you can see a dancing Lakshmi holding her favourite lotus flower in one hand and corn in the other. While we believe that corn was introduced to India by the Americans, these ancient idols prove that corn was a part of Indian food even before that. Then is the Lord of Medicines, Dhanvantri, holding his pot of traditional medicines. The last two picture shows quite a distinct carving of dancing Saraswati holding her Veena in one hand and Vedas, rosary, flowers in other. This denotes her mastery over music and Vedas.

 

History of Somanathpur Temple - Rama and Parshurama
Two of the incarnations of Vishnu can be seen here with elaborated carving. On the left is Rama, holding his bow and on the right is Parshurama holding his axe which is now broken.

 

Somnathpur Temple from Bangalore - Carving of Keshava
Lord Krishna or Keshava here can be seen playing his flute while the cows, shepherds and gopikas listen in awe. The other sculpture on the right is that of Lord Vishnu holding Shankh, Chakra, Gada and Padma.

 

Chennakeshava Temple Somanathpur - Vishnu Avatar Carvings
From your left, you can see the Matsyavatar (Fish), Varah Avatar (Boar) and Kurm Avatar (Turtle) of Vishnu.

 

Airavateshwara at Somnathpur Temple
Indra is riding with his wife Shachi, on his vahana, Airavat. The elephant’s posture is realistically depicted as he walks bending his front leg and holding lotus in his trunk.

 

somanathapura temple images
From your left, is the Yoga Narayana, or a meditating Vishnu. In the centre is the standing Lakshmi holding lotus and corn. On the right is Chaturmukhi Brahma who dramatically has a beard resembling the Chinese style.

 

somnathpur temple mysore
On the left is a sculpture of Lakshmi Narsimha, in the centre are Lakshmi and Vishnu carried by Garuda who is in the flying position. On the right is the sculpture of Lakshmi Narayana where Lakshmi’s foot rests on a lotus and the elephant supports it with its trunk.

 

somnathpur temple mysore
Indra can be seen on the left in a standing position holding his Vajra and on the right is Lord Vishnu.

 

somnathapura Keshava temple
The ornately carved sculptures of Hindu deities

 

somanathapura temple images
On the left, you can see a dancing Durga whose hands have been chopped off during the attacks. In the centre is an elaborate scene where Goddess Chamundeshwari of Mysore kills the demon Mahishasur (who came in the form of a buffalo) with her Trishul (which is now broken) and even the intestine of the demon can be seen wrenched out by her blow. On the right, the goddess is seen in dancing posture.

 

Intricately Carved Vimana

All Vimanas or Shikharas are intricately carved in the vertical bands. The Shikharas end up in an angle matching with each wing of the star-shaped platform. Each Shikhara of a sanctom has 12 angles forming a total of 36 for this  Trikutachala Temple. Earlier, they also had an elephant structure filling the gap on each angle(Read a wing of the star) on the platform. As of now, you can observe each angle of the shikhara perfectly in sync with the platform angles. The carvings of the Shikharas mainly include yakshas and celestial figures.

 

 

Interior of the Temple

 The Navaranga

The huge Sabha Mantap welcomes you upon entering the main shrine. The sturdy pillars support the Mantapa and its inextricably carved ceiling. A combination of a total of nine squares form the huge hall of the temple and is thus called Navranga. Right before entering the garbhgriha, a slightly raised stage gives a glimpse of all the three deities from the same place. This is also a place of dancing which denotes the presence of the Devadasi system.

 

 

The Blooming Ceiling

Don’t, just head straightway to the garbhgriha but take a moment to look up as you enter the sabha hall. The entrance square depicts the social life of the bygone era. Musicians, dancers, soldiers, Shiva-Parvati, Vishnu and some courtiers can be seen sitting on the rim as insanely dwarf figures. Different stories can be seen engraved on the domical ceiling. This is the most interestingly carved ceiling squares of all. You can also see a fresh bud popping down the centre of the dome here.

somanathapura temple history

Further as you move in a zigzag manner through each square (again starting from the left), you would see the blooming stages of the lotus. A few of these squared also have a Naagpash Rangoli carving or a jumbled snake carving along with the lotus bud. This may also denote the endless wheel of Karma-Samsara. Finally, as you reach the final square, the completely bloomed lotus flower ceiling can be seen at the top with the beautiful Keshava in front. Lord Janardan is placed on your right and Venugopala on the left.

 

The Typical Hoysala Pillars

The pillars are the iconic hallmark of Hoysala architecture. Out of the total 16 pillars in the hall 2 are handcrafted with geometric and nature’s design on them. The others are chiselled with the help of animals’  attached with a simple machine. These pillars are a combination of 5 different parts attached together. The bottom square, the chiselled body, lamp holding plate and finally the connector to the ceiling are the main parts of the pillar.

 

The Tri-shrined Sanctum Sanctorum

This temple has been constructed in Trikutachala order. This means that there is not just one garbhgriha but three for the same deity under different names.

 

 Keshava
The curious case of a fake idol

The centre Sanctorum facing the east has an idol of Chennakeshava which means a ‘beautiful Krishna.’ This temple is also named after this deity who is known by one of the many names of Lord Krishna. The masterpiece idol of the temple was first damaged during the Tughlaqi invasion and then was taken away by the British to keep it as a point of attraction in their country. Till date, the idol in the main shrine is just another idol taken off from the temple complex.

The entrance has the figures of Yoganarayana, Gajalakshmi and a Vishnu reclining on Shesha Nag (Snake).

 

 

Venugopala
somanathapura temple images
The miniature and the original idol inside the Garbhgriha

The shrine faces the southern direction and is extensively elaborated to make it look a lively scene where Krishna is playing the flute. On observing it closely, you would realize that an opulently clad Krishna’s fingers are all busy playing the flute. The gods, devatas from the Swarga Loka, sages, people from Vrindavan-Mathura and even the cows are engrossed in the hypnotic music played by Venugopala. Even his wives Rukmani and Satyabhama can also be seen. Such vivid engraving of scenery to make it look lifelike is really an excellent skill projected by the sculptor.

The same scenery can be seen in a miniature form on the Torana of this garbhgriha. The dwarpalaks Jaya and Vijaya can also be seen guarding the gate. In addition to this, the ten avatars of Vishnu and a dancing Vishnu can also be seen on the garbhgriha entrance.

 

Janadarna

somanathapura temple images

The common thing between the south and the north shrine is the carved figure of Yoganarayan, a seated Vishnu in Yogik pose and Dwarpal Jaya and Vijaya. Here, the four-handed Janardana can be seen holding Shankh, Chakra, Gada and Padma.  In this shrine too, the miniature of the actual idol has been placed on the toran of the entrance. You can even observe the nails of the deity Janadarna that tells of the minute details considered by the sculptor.

Somanathapura Temple History
Entranc of  the Janardana Sanctorum

Have more questions? Write in the comment and I will be more than happy to answer.

 

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chennakeshava temple somnathpur

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